Participants generated 67 Vision Requirements in response to the following question: “What do you think the ideal, sustainable model of assistive technology for Michigan educators and schools “ought to be” to support students in accessing the general education curriculum?”,



Table 5: List of Vision Requirements with Clarification
Triggering Question: ""WHAT DO YOU THINK THE IDEAL, SUSTAINABLE MODEL OF ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MICHIGAN EDUCATORS AND SCHOOLS "OUGHT TO BE" TO SUPPORT STUDENTS IN ACCESSING THE GENERAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM?""
Vision Requirement 1: A STRONG HOME COMPONANT FOR EQUIPMENT/SOFTWARE BEING USED
For number 1 what I mean is that there should be coordination between AT at school and home. For example, if I used premiere at school I should have access at home. This also includes parent training and knowledge as well as the student. I would like to see more connection between school and home.

Vision Requirement 2: INCREASE OF TRAINED SCHOOL STAFF
Fairly self explanatory, at least in our area. Feel like more school staff need to be trained in AT.

Vision Requirement 3: INCREASE IN SUPPORT OF ASSISTIVE TECH USE AT A CLASSROOM LEVEL
That we need to start increasing the support with teachers and students in using the technology in classrooms.

Vision Requirement 4: A CLEARINGHOUSE OR DATABASE OF ALTERNATIVE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AS WELL AS HAVING AN ARTICULATED PROCESS FOR ACCESSING PUBLISHERS CONTENT
Example is that I have a struggle in my district to make sure curriculum leaders recognize the need for accessible instructional materials at the time ordered and they consider accessible instruction materials as they work on the adoption process of the curriculum. 2nd part is that I have learned and worked with Jeff on projects, getting direct connections with publishers on board so that we
have both sides of the equations on knowing who to talk with to keep that dialogue going.
Q: a clearing house or database? Is that a place where we would go to find out if something is available? Is that what you mean by clearing house?
A: yes. I mean a central location of information of where to sort out what other schools are using. A common publisher. For example, math is a challenge. Consider it a place that would be great as a database so we wouldn't have to call and play phone tag.

Vision Requirement 5: A BALANCE BETWEEN GIVING A FISH AND TEACHING SOMEONE TO FISH REGARDING ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY
The best example is in the business of giving AT we are not teaching people how to use it but we are not building capacity in how people use it. Especially in the ISD and other areas the logistics and geography is that we have to teach local schools how to use it so that they can come to us. But we have to teach people to fish.
Q- Do you mean to also provide the resources so that a person could simply go online and look up how to use something?
A - Yes.

Vision Requirement 6: [DELETE] TECHNOLOGY IS USED WIDELY IN GENERAL EDUCATION FOR ALL STUDENTS
Ira said it eloquently. If everybody used technology, then there's nothing unusal about using AT.

Vision Requirement 7: STUDENTS AND STAFF NEED THE SAME ACCESS TO INFORMATION
So from school to school, classroom to classroom everyone has the same information. So if someone has a student in one class everyone gets the same info about that student.
Q - Do you mean that study guides etc. would be avail to all teachers or are you referring to AT only?
A - Both

Vision Requirement 8: UNDERSTANDING THAT DISABILITY IS A NATURAL PART OF THE HUMAN CONDITION
This is a synthesis with a lot of barriers in that there's the process of special education, sometimes drawn out. Think that some co-workers in my office think more that a disability can been seen as a natural disability issue. Need to work on confidentiality, afraid to ask cause, afraid to be different. More as disability can been seen as another characteristic that somebody has, goes hand in hand with universal design.

Vision Requirement 9: A BREAK IN THE THOUGHT PROCESS THAT ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY IS ONLY ALTERNATIVE OR AUGMENTATIVE COMMUNICATION
A lot of people in our district, when we say AT, only think that it is for those kids that have verbal expression. They think of switches and verbal assistance they do not think of laptops but there is a lot of technology out there that is not AAC but a lot of people think they don’t need it and they all do, I believe.

Vision Requirement 10: INCREASE COLLABORATION AND TEACHING OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS AND OTHERS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
From my own experience in working with new teachers as well as doing some work with pre-service programs in the area, there is very little teaching in those programs relating to AT solutions or general instructional technology. Often surprised by how little the students know unless self-taught, let alone any AT solutions that should be considered for their students.

Vision Requirement 11: NECESSITY FOR STAFF KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS REGARDING ASSISTIVE TECH IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CURRIULUM
Start with GE curriculum meaning that students that were going to be in GE and looking at all those students my concept is technology for all. So to provide for that becomes a more global process. Look at what all staff know about technology and the ability to use it in the classroom and then AT becomes technology in the classroom.

Vision Requirement 12: EACH SCHOOL SHOULD HAVE AN INDIVIDUAL OR TEAM WHO SUPPORTS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNOLOGY INTO THE CURRICULUM
Here's an Example: A bond issue passed in the school district that my children attend. We have new macs & new pcs set up in a beautiful computer lab, It's phenomenal, however it's been useless for this school year. It's a huge bond issue. We have a bright tech coordinator, but don't have any means of implementing it in the 2nd grade classroom that my daughter attends. Schools
should have a team. Yes we need that tech person, need to implement from the educators, and implement the use of technology into the curriculum.

Vision Requirement 13: COLLABORATION WITH ALL THE IEP TEAM MEMBERS FOR ASSESSMENT AS WELL AS IMPLEMENTATION OF AT
All of the team members- teachers, students, parents should have some way to communicate their ideas for implementation. If the student does not have input they are not going to buy into it. The communication channel should be open.

Vision Requirement 14: NECESSITY FOR WELL-TRAINED LOCAL TEAMS
If we are going to consider AT in every child's IEP, each IEP team need to have some level of knowledge of what AT is, how to make that consideration process and matching appropriate tools. At some level every team needs to have that and need to know where to go for add'l resources. It's important that local districts have well training knowledgeable people at those levels.

Vision Requirement 15: ASSISTIVE TECH SUPPORT NEEDS TO BE AVAILABLE TO PARENTS AND STUDENTS AT ALL TIMES OF THE DAY
For parents who are trying to help their children use AT at home they need technology support and software support. To help with fusion for what they are doing at home, especially younger students who cannot explain the tools, but the parents should have somewhere to call. During the school day we can call the school but at night there is nowhere for parents to call for support.
(Unheard Comment Made)
Go ahead and add students to the statement.

Vision Requirement 16: GENERAL EDUCATION IS BASED IN INSTRUCTIONAL TOLERANCE AND UNIVERSAL DESIGN SO ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY IS ESSENTIALLY UNNECESSARY
Example if all of us had in front of us all the reading devices we needed to use, then nobody would be labeled as having a disability. Lack of instructional tolerance, we have mislabeled somebody as who needs to be fixed.
6&16 relate - talking about the same thing. 16 is much more elaborated. Deleting number 6 from the list.
Q: So we think about student who needs devices. So we wouldn't think about it as AT? So what do we think about those students
who need specialized devices?
A: Think it's all technology, pen and pencil and computer. What's the difference between using eyeglasses and communication devices. If we pick the technology that works best for them - not stating if someone is talking this way, writing this way, just people choose to use tools that help them.

Vision Requirement 17: A TEAM DECISION IS MADE USING A PROCESS THAT MATCHES ASSISTIVE TECH TO TASK
I’m referencing a common framework, SETT framework, as a systematic approach where the equipment matches to what the student needs help with.

Vision Requirement 18: SEAMLESS INTEGRATION/ DAILY USE WITHIN THE REGULAR CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT
similar to #16. The vision with technology is that it's not just technology. It's all technology and full integration into the daily environment and sometimes the technology is more invasive and sometimes not. Disability does not disable my son or others in the classroom.
All related to #16.

Vision Requirement 19: CONSISTANT FOLLOW-UP IS PROVIDED IN THE USE OF ASSISTIVE TECH AFTER THE INITIAL TRAINING
I think one of the comments/complaints is that there is no consistent follow-up following the initial training. So things are not continued to be used.

Vision Requirement 20: INCREASE IN TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE AT THE CLASSROOM LEVEL
This varies a lot between school districts. Some buildings that have a classroom computer, may or may not be accessible to students. Students need to be able to use the technology that is there for them to use.

Vision Requirement 21: BE THE VOICE AND VISION FOR UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING, CREATING CURRICULAR SUPPORTS FOR EXPRESSIONS, REPRESENTATIONS, AND ENGAGEMENT
I think UDL is still a peripheral concept not integrated with special or general education. Everyone recognizes that as one of CASTS main ideas and I wanted to make sure it was stated.

Vision Requirement 22: TIMELY ASSISTIVE TECH SUPPORTS TO STUDENTS, TEACHERS, PARENTS, AND SYSTEMS/AGENCIES WHEN NEEDED
Getting follow up sometimes is not timely enough. Issues have already passed. Because they don’t get out there in a timely manner, parents can't access things in a timely manner. Follow up issue and timeliness issue that's involved here.

Vision Requirement 23: ENTHUSIASM


Vision Requirement 24: LOOKING AT IEP GOALS VS. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY NEEDS
Depending on how you look at this with universal design I fully agree but at the present time all we have is IEP goals. Want to mention that we look at IEP goals and how addressed through AT. Look at pencils (low) or high tech. Want to make sure that is covered.

Vision Requirement 25: REQUIREMENTS FOR GENERAL EDUCATION TEACHERS TO BE TRAINED AND USE ASSISTIVE TECH DAILY
I think we have all been to in-service sessions that have nothing to do with what your job is but if we went to in-service on AT that teachers use with students it would not be as difficult to get them to use it. It goes back to training more staff not just the specialists who are trying to help.

Vision Requirement 26: INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY, CURRICULUM STAFF, AND ASSISTIVE TECH STAFF WORK AS A TEAM
Certainly have in our area some key groups and has been commented before working with curriculum directors. Often our tech are unsupportive of anything considered special education. Working as a team together to visual students as a group.

Vision Requirement 27: SHORTAGE OF RESOURCES TO EFFECTIVELY IMPLEMENT TECHNOLOGY AND ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MICHIGAN EDUCATORS AND SCHOOLS
When we look at the resources in MI and in our ISD we are coming up short and if we want to effectively implement we need to look at what we have available and make it more global and make it getting it more of an issue. We have roots in IDEA and it is a legal issue.

Vision Requirement 28: EACH SCHOOL SHOULD HAVE AN INDIVIDUAL HOLDING A CASELOAD RESPONSIBLE FOR FOLLOW-UP FOR INDIVIDUALS USING ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY
What would be ideal, if we have a lot of students that we do evals with and have all kinds of equipment. It would be nice if someone was checking on them weekly or monthly. Seeing if those technology pieces are helping the students. A speech tech has 60 people on a caseload. Districts should have a technology caseload. There is staff available and to check on them (children).

Vision Requirement 29: THERE IS A NEED FOR ON-GOING TRAINING AND AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES
I think all of us have hit on ongoing training but I think the availability of online resources is crucial to get it out to anyone that takes part in the AT process at all.

Vision Requirement 30: GENERAL ED CURRICULUM THAT EASILY ALLOWS FOR FLEXIBILITY AND ACCOMMODATIONS
Touches on UDL and the need to accept any type of needs of students. Looking at curriculum from the beginning. Needs of all students are looked at. All the stages of UDL, engagement. Hopefully all students can use the technology that they have and be part of that general ed curriculum.

Vision Requirement 31: PARENTS ARE TRAINED IN HOW THEIR CHILD'S ASSISTIVE TECH WORKS AND HOW IT HELPS THEIR CHILD
A few people have touched on how teachers need to be trained in how to use AT and how it helps students. But at the same time it is important to train the parents if the AT will be used outside school. Maybe even require training for parents. I have gotten a lot of training as a parent but I think I am the exception and many parents are intimidated and they do not feel comfortable using the AT with their child at home.

Vision Requirement 32: STUDENTS LEARNING TO CHOOSE AND ADAPT TECHNOLOGIES TO TASK IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN LEARNING ANY PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY
I'm a big fan of student choice of AT in general and I believe all should choose tools through your day through your life. Learning how to do that is more valuable than teaching technology.


Vision Requirement 33: NECESSITY FOR KNOWLEDGEABLE STAFF TO OBTAIN EQUIP. AND HELP THE STUDENTS, STAFF, AND PARENTS USE IT EFFECTIVELY
I think this relates to 28 and 29. Professional Dev. And knowledgeable staff need to be trained and for the parents to support students and use AT effectively there needs to be trained staff. It includes acquisition of materials as well. I think it pretty much says what it needs to say, that a knowledgeable staff needs to take part in training.

Vision Requirement 34: QUICK PROVISION OF UP-TO- DATE EQUIPMENT AT LOW OR NO COST TO DISTRICTS AND FAMILIES
Related back to some of schools not having computers yet. Run into a lot of buildings running win 95, out to date computers, and
it's frustrating. If we're going to have kids using the stuff, it needs to be updated and available.

Vision Requirement 35: INCREASED USE OF TECHNOLOGY TO TRAIN IN ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR SCHOOL STAFF
This is about training in AT in general - rural area in UP it’s not always easy to bring people in or send to training. So ideally having staff trained in AT might help.
Q- To clarify - do they actually have the devices right there
A - correct

Vision Requirement 36: BALANCE IN THE METHOD OF THE DELIVERY OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY
Need to be doing all those things and have follow up. Need to have a variety of opportunities to engage in professional development.

Vision Requirement 37: A COORDINATED VISION AND PROCESS OF DATA COLLECTION AS WELL AS INFO., CONTENT, AND DOCUMENTATION OF THIS DATA
As an AT consultant I find developing my skills in data design/collection and sharing my knowledge with my peers is something that we need to articulate, model and support more. I still shudder and grit my teach when people come to the table and say it doesn’t; feel like my student is doing better.
Q - Data is numerical measurable
A - I assume it is measureable. Might be rubrics or something anecdotal.
Q - What do you consider data?
A - Something measureable or something that can be described as measurable
C -The data could be anecdotal or
C- No I will let is stand
Q -Is the data collection process student specific? I see data used and one of the funding bases is that you can use the data to see why the grant becomes a possibility. I think we need to go a step further and have a state set-up (database).
A - School district, region - I’m involved with new student data and trying to get it to state accurately.
Q - I like the way the data moved beyond the student/teacher to the state but I wondered if you would use it to inform the field as well? In the traditional sense of research.
A - Yes - I like the idea. I was not as global but I like the idea.
Q - Given the global definition of data I assume it is measureable and relates to AT?
A- I am not sure I want to limit it to AT I want it broader and open to all forms.

Vision Requirement 38: DATA
Has been covered by 37.

Vision Requirement 39: INCREASED GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF THE POTENTIAL OF ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY BY ALL STUDENTS
Thinking once again that AT is not only useful to the student using it but to other students in the class. If you are going to teach disability history AT is part of the history. It is hard to talk about technology without thinking about AT but I think it could be part of the general education curriculum. It could make some of the AT less obvious.
Vision Requirement 40: COLLABORATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CUTTING EDGE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN A VARIETY OF FORMATS
It's both collaborative in that many of us are doing isolated professional development in our local area. We should be collaboratively developing those tools and making sure they are cutting edge. Need to not sit back and say we developed professional development on that topic. We need to figure out a format for it. Develop a format for learning styles as well.

Vision Requirement 41: INCREASE THE STATEWIDE DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY THAT PROVIDES RESOURCES IN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR ALL OF MICHIGAN EDUCATORS, SCHOOLS, AND PARENTS
We have to build upon the system of statewide delivery so that we have resources for PD folks whether it be cutting edge or something we have used in the past. How do we do that consistently with a state the size of ours?
Q - What is your definition of resources? PD, training?
A - I used resources because it is global. Anything that is needed to move the concept of technology and AT forward.

Vision Requirement 42: FUNDING IS AVAILABLE TO SUPPORT PERSONNEL PROVIDING ASSISTIVE TECH SERVICES
Ideally funding is available to support the personnel providing the technology services. We need money to do all of this.

Vision Requirement 43: THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ASSISTIVE TECH WITH ASSIGMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THESE RESPONSIBILITIES SHOULD BE BALANCED AMONG STAFF
Just that there are components to any implementation and often times one person gets responsibility and it should be spread out between teachers, students, parents, and anyone working with that student.

Vision Requirement 44: ONGOING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT EASILY ACCESSIBLE AND OFFERED IN MULTIPLE FORMATS
Similar to what others have said in discussion. Easily accessible for anybody in the state. Some have more trainings than others. Multiple formats, could be face to face, webinars, or a multiple of varieties of ways to get things done.

Vision Requirement 45: KEEP ASSISTIVE TECH AS NON-OBVIOUS TO OTHER STUDENTS AS POSSIBLE
I teach at the MS and there are a large block of students who could use AT but don’t because they don’t want to stand out from the other students. Ira and Cindy mentioned allowing all students to use the technology that helps them learn best. This might stop students who use AT from standing out. Kathryn stated that everyone needs to use something and this would also help.
Q- Would you agree there are a lot to make that happen?
A - Yes.

Vision Requirement 46: A SYSTEM-WIDE BELIEF IN LEARNER CONTROL OF THEIR OWN EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT
Goes back to UDL. Started this morning with process and content. It's students who get to establish their own process in education. They become lifetime learners or whatever their specific issues are. If students are forced into someone else’s context, that's where the issues are.

Vision Requirement 47: A PROCESS IS IN PLACE THAT DETERMINES IF THE ASSISTIVE TECH IS USEFUL OR NOT AND, IF NOT, BACK TO THE TEAM DECISION
Just that this is an ongoing process to determine the best tool and if we have not found it we don’t stop looking. If the student has something we don’t consider it the end all we keep going through the process.


Vision Requirement 48: INCREASE IN NETWORKING OPPORTUNITIES BETWEEN EDUCATORS
Need to build in time to talk with one another to find out what is going on in the classrooms and what kind of technology is available.

Vision Requirement 49: ONLINE COMMUNITY OF INQUIRERS WHO SEEK QUESTIONS AND INITIATE DISCUSSIONS WHICH CAN BE TURNED INTO ACTIONS
Want to centralize a place for communication that would foster enthusiasm and allow for communication without having to be physically present.

Vision Requirement 50: WE FUNCTION WITHIN A MORE OPEN PROCESS FOR AWARENESS, TRAINING, AND DECISION MAKING THAT INCLUDES ALL TEAM MEMBERS - STUDENTS, PARENTS, EDUCATORS, ADMINISTRATORS
Still function in many instances 'called secret society'. Don't open up awareness of the process. Often exclude the student, sometimes the parents. Need to open up the process more.

Vision Requirement 51: DEVELOPING A BASIC KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATORS, STUDENTS, AND PARENTS
Want to have a foundation or basic platform so that when a technology is employed they know how to use the technology. Basic things like opening a program using it. Also for parents and then when the technology is employed then we know they have the ability to use it.

Vision Requirement 52: ALL TEACHERS ARE REQUIRED TO USE TECHNOLOGY WHILE TEACHING
Statewide requirement from MDE that it's part of the school.

Vision Requirement 53: THAT THE ASSESSMENT OF THE STUDENTS ASSISTIVE TECH NEEDS IN THE CLASSROOM ARE BASED ON THE TASKS THAT NEED COMPENSATION AND THEN THAT IS BASED ON THE FEATURES OF THE ASSISTIVE TECH - NOT A SPECIFIC PRODUCT
I was getting many parents saying I think they need this rather than looking at what the student needs which is backward. What we try to do is get student in LRE and many times the tool is more expensive and has more options than what the student needs.

Vision Requirement 54: AVAILABILITY OF TOOLS, EQUIP., SOFTWARE, ETC. FOR CASH-STRAPPED DISTRICTS
It's a new reality in Michigan..how do we get what we need with not the resources we've had in the past. Statewide price breaks that could be coordinated, the loan programs could help.. Knowledge of free and low cost alternatives.

Vision Requirement 55: WE HELP EVERY STUDENT IN MICHIGAN DEVELOP A TOOL KIT FOR INFO., COMMUNICATION, AND LEARNING
We live in a time when everybody need to learn to access and distribute information and if we are not actively teaching what works best for kids we are letting down a whole generation of kids but it also leads to if we individualize then no one stands out.

Vision Requirement 56: REGULAR WEBINARS AND ONLINE EXPERIENCES THAT ADDRESS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEEDS OF CONTENT TOOLS AND ARTICULATION OF STRATEGIES
I've enjoyed the webinars that MITS has provided on tools..need to build and expand on that.

Vision Requirement 57: MDE REQUIRES A COURSE IN ASSISTIVE TECH FOR CERTIFICATION IN SPECIAL EDUCATION
Listening to everyone talk about the important of PD, this may be one way to give a broad base of knowledge or understanding.
Q - Is there any requirement right now?
A - In the standards - that AT be addressed some way
Q - Do you know how many universities offer a course?
A- No but I know MI state
Q - What about Gen education teachers?
A - I didn’t say GE because teacher certification is so crammed I didn’t mention them.
I don’t' think it should be integrated into course work but this should be a specific course rather than integrated across/within courses.

Vision Requirement 58: COLLABORATING WITH LOCAL SCHOOL TECHNOLOGY PERSONNEL FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF ASSISTIVE TECH, COMPUTER SOFTWARE NEEDS FOR STUDENTS
Some local districts are refusing to put certain software programs on computers because linked. Makes difficult for students and they don't understand the need for it.

Vision Requirement 59: EDUCATION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION TRAINING REQUIRED FOR ALL SCHOOL TECHNOLOGY STAFF
I am constantly going into schools where we talk about free technology or MRS talks about buying technology but IT blocks putting it on. In nations where technology people are in education there is a better rate of acceptance of the technology.
Q – Clarify, the amount or type of training you do with school technology people.
A - At least a semester of training in AT for special education or educational technology.

Vision Requirement 60: STATE OF MICHIGAN DEVELOPS A BASELINE STANDARD OF TECHNOLOGY FOR ALL CLASSROOMS
Think about 78 hundred dollars for student standards. Maybe try to blanket it and this is a standard for technology baseline. Opportunity for online professional development be distributed through all classrooms throughout Michigan.


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Aleco Christakis
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Cindy Okolo






















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Megan Zell